The success of planning in conquering both intellectual and popular opinion is really rather remarkable, particularly if one bears in mind that the idea of planning … only surfaced in the second decade of [the last] century. For the previous hundred years it had been ‘liberty’ which had been emblazoned on the banners of the international socialist movement. In the twentieth century, it is no exaggeration to say that planning has displaced liberty as the key slogan of socialism.

Peter Rutland, The Myth of the Plan (London:  Hutchinson, 1985)